Pyrolysis For Biochar

The new term low-carbon energy technology stands for a wide variety of energy sources that produce considerable fewer emissions than the traditional fossil fuels.

Biochar plays a huge role in low-carbon energy because the amount that is released by converting biomass to biochar and further to energy was previously bound during the growth process of the biomass. Therefore the emission is close to zero and the resulting biochar is seen as a valuable by-product for both carbon sequestration and soil health benefits.

Production of Biochar

For producing the highest amount of solids, lower temperatures and longer residence times are used during the pyrolysis process. This is called Slow Pyrolysis.  

First the biomass is prepared by drying and mechanical comminution. Wood, which is the main used biomass, begins to degrade (carbonize) above 270 °C. At around 400 °C the pyrolytic decomposition takes place for several hours.

Without air supply, far less CO₂ and energy is released from the feedstock, which leads to new energy-rich reaction products: bio-char and bio-gas emerge. The process energy needed for the temperatures can covered by the combustion of the gaseous reaction products.

Because of the lower temperatures and the long residence time, 25-35% of the yields is biochar.

Biochar is defined as a charcoal-​like by-​product produced during the thermal conversion of biomass to energy. This is done by Pyrolysis, where biomass is converted under restricted oxygen supply into a mixture of solids (biochar),  bio-oil, and  gas products



  • Determined by the producing conditions and the converted biomass
  • Total porosity similar to peat at 90%–95%
  • High water-holding capacity
  • High pH-value
  • Rich in nutrient because of high concentration of carbon (up to 80%)
  • Fine grained (Depending on pyrolysis process)


  • Energy production: biofuel
  • Disposial of organic waste
  • Soil amendment
  • Increase of soil fertility of acidic soils
  • Water retention
  • Natural feed additive

Biomass Pyrolysis Process Visualization:

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Ablative fast Pyrolysis  aims at the production of liquid pyrolysis oil.